Friday, June 4, 2010

Imam Jafar as Sadiq (as) Maternal Linage

Imam Jafar as Sadiq (as) grandfather was Hz Qasim ibn Muhammad bin Abi Bakr (ra). This tabeen was raised in the household of Bibi Ayesha (ra), just like how Muhammad bin Abi Bakr (ra) was raised in the household of Imam Ali (as)

Ahlul Bayt (as) view on Abu Bakr (ra) and Umar (ra) Part 1

This clip covers the view which the Ahlul Bayt (as) had about Abi Bakr (ra) and Umar (ra)

Imam Muhammad Al Baqir (as) and Imam Abu Hanifah

This clip is about the meeting which occurred between Imam Baqir (as) and Imam Abu Hanifah. The 12rs shia on the contrary, dismiss this incident, cut and paste half of this story and claim that Imam Baqir (as) dismissed the concept of Qiyas.

Here the hadith from the 12rs Imami books.

Al kafi: H 175, Ch. 19, h 20

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn ‘Abdallah al-‘Aqili from ‘Isa ibn ‘Abdallah al-Qurashi who has said the following.

"Once abu Hanifah came to see Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who said to abu Hanifah, "O abu Hanifah, do you practice analogy as I hear you do?" Abu Hanifah replied, "Yes, I do practice analogy." The Imam then said to him, "Do not practice it because the first person who used analogy was Satan when he said, "Lord, you have created me from fire and created him from clay." He analogized fire with clay. If he would have analogized the light in the clay and fire he would have learned about the difference between the two lights and the excellence of one over the other."

On top of that the 12rs shias are so treacherous that they have taken the examples that Imam Abu Hanifah (ra) used to justify his teachings and claimed that it was Imam Baqir (as) who used examples to explain fiqh to Imam Abu Hanifah instead.

Anyway, we can't expect the Imami to give the sunni scholars any credits. After all most of them don't even believe that Sunni are Muslims in the aqira. If we read other books Qiyas such as Zaydia the concept of Qiyas is approved by Imam Zayd bin Ali (as) who was another teacher of Imam Abu Hanifah.

Here how the story goes.

Most of the people think Imam Abu Hanifa valued opinion to an extent that sometimes he neglected some hadeeth or didn't even make an effort to find a hadeeth on a specific matter. This was also the case when the Imam was alive and the fuqahaa of 'Iraq were known for their opinions among the Muslims.

"It appears that Abu Hanifa met Muhammad al-Baqir(great grandson of the grandson of Prophet Muhammad-PBUH, Al-Husayn) at the beginning of his development (as a faqih). He first met him in Madina when he was visiting it. It is reported that al-Baqir remarked to him, "Are you the one who changes the deen of my grandfather and his hadiths by analogy?" Abu Hanifa replied, " I seek refuge with Allah!" Muhammad said, "You have changed it." Abu Hanifa said, "Sit in your place as is your right until I sit by my right. I respect you as your grandfather, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was respectred by his Companions when he was alive." He sat.

Then Abu Hanifa knelt before him and said, " I will present you with three things to answer. Who is weaker: a man or woman?" "A woman", he replied. Abu Hanifa asked, "What is the share of a woman?" "A man has two shares and a woman one," he replied. Abu Hanifa said, "This is the statement of your grandfather. If I had changed the deen of your grandfather, by analogy a man would have one share and a woman two because the woman is weaker than the man."

Then he asked, "Which is better: the prayer or fasting?" "The prayer," al-Baqir replied. He said, "This is the statement of your grandfather. If I had changed the deen of your grandfather, by ananlogy would be that, because the prayer is better, when a woman is free of menstruation she should be commanded to make up the prayer and not make up the fast."

Then he asked, "Which is more impure: urine or sperm?" "Urine is more impure," he replied. He said, "If I had changed the deen of your grandfather by analogy, I would have ordered a ghusl for urine and wudu' for sperm. I seek refuge with Allah from changing the deenof your grandfather by analogy." Muhammad rose and embraced him and kissed his face to honour him."

Note: Muhammad al-Baqir, the son of Zayn al-'Abidin, was the brother of Imam Zayd and died before him. He was called, "al-Baqir" (deep seeker of knowledge) because of the serious way he sought knowledge. Although he was one of the People of the House (Ahlul Bayt), he did not speak ill of the first three khalifs.


Al-Makki mentions this conservation and it is taken from the book "The Four Imams" by Muhammad Abu Zahra. It can be found on page 169-170 in his book

Imam Jafar As Sadiq (as) Intro


by Imam Al Asi

There is no doubt that today's Muslims are more divided than they have ever been. The divisions are so prevalent that in the political and economic sense of the word the Muslims of the world have ceased to be the "ummah" spoken about in the Qur'an and the Sunnah. A closer look at the condition of today's Muslims and we realize that these divisions are related to disputes and disagreements that have become throughout the ages what appear to be irreconcilable differences. Historical arguments as well as contemporary opinions have consolidated themselves into a "self-righteousness" that elevates a personal belief or persuasion at the cost of denigrating the "other." This self-righteousness extends itself into fields of conception, doctrine, opinion, behavior, morality, lifestyles, inter-social relations, language, choice of words and vocabulary, attire, ambitions, etc... All these divisive trends are practiced to the exclusion of the other Muslim, or with friction towards the other Muslim, or even to clash and "kill" the other Muslim. All this divisive holier-than-thou manner of acting or conducting oneself or society runs contrary to the very essence and meanings of the Qur'an and the Sunnah. In the Qur'an and the Sunnah we have an obvious emphasis on the integrity, integration, and unity of the Muslims. We shall try to point out in this presentation the major reason for this dichotomy between a Qur'an and Sunnah that underscore the centrality of Islamic cohesiveness and togetherness on one hand, and the traditional or cultural divisions that characterize today's Muslims from neighborhood to neighborhood and from continent to continent.

All Muslims recite and repeat the ayah:

And, indeed, this is your ummah, [when it is], one ummah; and I am your Sustainer – and, thus, conform unto ME.(Surah Al Ambiya' verse 92)

Yet, it is all Muslims who live in exclusive cultural clusters, or individualized "independent" nation-states, or self-centered sectarian societies – all in inconsistency and incompatibility with the meanings of Scripture and Sunnah...

Why so?

To begin to answer this question we need to scan the general history that we all share, regardless of our backgrounds or priorities. This general history appears to have developed along three parallel courses, for the purposes of this paper. The first course is a doctrinaire course, the second course is a political course, and the third course is a fiqhi course. These three parallels have produced for us conceptual schools of thought, political schools of thought, as well as fiqhi schools of thought. The origins of all these schools of thought were in the first two or three centuries following the demise of our beloved Prophet. Some of these tendencies or trends have virtually withered away, while others are still alive and kicking. Without going into any detail we have schools of thought known as "al-Jabriyah", "al-Qadriyah", "al-Murji'ah", and "al-Mu`tazilah". These intellectual trends do not exist in today's world in a very substantial or in a very self-conscious way. We do not come across Muslims, who when asked to identify themselves, would say that they belong to any of the above intellectual trends. Therefore, for practical purposes we will not dwell on the historical differences that were very tense at the time between or among these bygone tendencies. We do acknowledge, though, that the potential for their "origins of thought" are still with us; because, after-all, these tendencies come from a human nature and a human mind that, in essence, are what they have always been and will express themselves with the same proclivities even though the "times" may have changed...

Another level of variation of thought is found in the fiqhi opinions of early and contemporary mujtahids. In this area we have towering fiqhi figures such as al-Imam al-Sadiq, Abu Hanifah, al-Shafi`i, Malik, Ibn Hanbal, and al-Imam Zayd just to mention a few. Their personal and scholarly opinions, interpretations, and rulings are to be found in their copious books of fiqh. And if anyone were to compare their valued works he would find that they all shared a common trait of "thinking through" the meanings of the Qur'an and the Sunnah – even though they did not share an identical analysis or one and the same conclusion on some or on many issues.

Unlike the broad conceptual and doctrinaire intellectual efforts that have withered away through the course of the past one thousand years, the fiqhi efforts are still strongly adhered to by the majority of contemporary Muslims. It is unfortunate to say that some of these Muslims who are characterized, by and large, by a primitive understanding of ijtihadi matters consider their school of thought preference to be superior to other schools of thought in a divisive and sometimes offensive manner. This subject itself may need a rigorous and scholarly diffusion of its "tension" issues... issues that cause some Muslims belonging to one school of thought to be dismissive of or defamatory towards other Muslims who do not belong to their school of thought.

Which brings us to the most important element of divisions and divisiveness among the Muslims today – and that is what may be called the "political schools of thought" or the ayaat and hadiths that are used by some to explain or rationalize the hatred of other Muslims or even hostilities and wars against other Muslims. We think that this is the most serious of all issues that has outlived the passage of time and that can be used by Imperialists and Zionists to keep the Muslims in a state of ideological tension, political divisions, and military aggression.

Before we give way to an outline of some of the dynamics involved in the "on-again, off-again" flare-up of strains and state of war we think it necessary to mention the ayaat in the Guiding Qur'an that, if understood conscientiously, would deter tension and tumult among Muslims.

… And do not be of the mushriks, of those who subdivided their deen and became zealots – each party [obsessively] prideful of what it has… (Surah Ar Rum verse 31-32)

Verily, those who subdivided their deen and became zealots, you [O Muhammad] have nothing to do with them… (Surah Al An'aam verse 159)

And those who have been vouchsafed Scripture did not provocatively and aggressively take issue with one another except after having received knowledge [from on high]… (Surah Aal Imran verse 19)


Before we descend into the nitty-gritty of this issue we would like to state the following observations.

Differences of opinion are normal and natural within the given and consensual understanding of the impeccable Qur'an and the established Sunnah. The more variations of such ijtihad, the more effort invested in explaining their rich meanings. Differences of ijtihad within the combined understanding of the Qur'an and Sunnah are complimentary; whereas differences within a fragmented understanding of the Qur'an and Sunnah may become contradictory or even confrontational. Expressing such variations of opinions that are based on an integrated understanding of the Qur'an and Sunnah may take the form of accommodation which is the way it is supposed to be, or may take the form of discrimination which is the way it is not supposed to be. Therefore, whatever a Muslim's fiqhi preference or political persuasion may be within the overall consolidation of the Qur'an and Sunnah he/she is required to accept and admit another Muslim's preference and persuasion as long as it does not exclude Muslims from their professed commitment to Allah and HIS Prophet. It simply is not within the nature of things that all thinking human beings are going to be a carbon copy of each other. This applies to intra-Islamic ijtihad as it applies to cross-cultural and inter-human relationships and reasoning.

And had your Sustainer decreed it HE would have rendered [all people] as one ummah and they [still] would have had their differences except for he who is blessed by your Sustainer; and for that reason HE created them… (Surah Hud verse 118-119)

The issue to be noted is that when differences do occur, and they are inevitable, that there be no hostilities associated with such God-given differences. Differences of understanding and analyzing the aggregated meanings of the Qur'an and Sunnah will, in the long run, divulge some benefits. One such benefit is the fact that an ayah, a hadith, or a theme therein may indeed turn out to have a variety of mobile but not opposite meanings pertinent to time and place variations. Variations of analyses and analytical thinking are God-given freedoms that need to be juxtaposed and objectively evaluated, provided that there is no malice or ill-will in this regard.

With Qur'anic guidelines we may detect that "self-centeredness" or "the ego" or "covetousness" are feelings that act as catalyst for initiation of hostilities and fragmentation. Any "truth" when saddled with such individualistic compulsions turns into a causal factor for animosity and potential warfare. The following are some ayaat that shed light on the nature of ego-centric claims to the absolute truth.

Is it so, that every-time an Apostle comes to you with what your egos are not inclined to accept you become arrogant and in doing so you attribute lies to some [apostles] and other [apostles] you kill? (Surah Al Baqarah verse 87)

… do not trail your egos to do justice… (Surah An Nisa' verse 135)

Say [O Muhammad]: I will not follow your self-centered ways; for if I do, I will go astray and be not guided… (Surah Al An'aam verse 56)

… And do not tag to your ego; for it [your ego] will divert you from the course to Allah… (Surah Sawd verse 26)

And if the Haqq were to trace their self-love the heavens and the earth and everything therein would spoil… (Surah Al Mu'minun verse 71)

And many [people] do go astray because of their selfishness, void of knowledge… (Surah Al An'aam verse 116)

Many Muslims refer to the first generation of Muslims who were brought up, schooled, and tempered by none other than the Prophet himself, as a generation that is flawless or incapable of sin. We do not want to enter into any argument with such people who hold such perception. Our concern is to try to have them think through their convictions. In doing so we will sight some of the differences of opinions that were held by prominent personalities of that same generation. We will avoid names, as some Muslims are offended by the names of these Muslims in positions that need to be corrected.

The first issue that became a matter of dispute or differing opinions was concerning the death of the Prophet. One of the Sahabah (radi Allahu anhu) held that the Prophet did not die; and he considered any such statement tantamount to playing into the munafiqeen's hands...Of course the issue was later settled, and this prominent Sahabi came to his senses and was convinced that the Prophet (P) actually passed on to heavenly company... Another issue that had different opinions among that first generation of devout Muslims was: where should the Prophet's grave be? Is it to be where he died, or should he be buried where the other committed Sahabas were buried? Eventually, this issue was also resolved, and the Prophet was buried in the same place as he passed on. Another issue of differences of opinion pertains to "who should succeed the Prophet" as head of state? And here we have a difference of opinion that continues to live on to this very day. We also have a difference of opinion about what should be the punishment of "Muslims" who refused to pay their zakat to the Islamic State once the Prophet passed on. This deliberate policy by some people of withholding their due to the Islamic treasury had to be encountered. But how? Should they be disciplined by a military campaign? Or should there be other measures taken to see to it that they wind up paying their financial obligations to the state that offers them their rights and protects them from insecurity and aggression? Another issue of contention among those pioneering Muslims was: what shall be done with territories that are acquired by the Islamic State? Should these newly acquired territories become "private property"? Or should they be state owned? What we learn from this sequence of events is that these committed Muslims never adjudicated their differences by hatred towards each other or by waging war against each other. Differences of opinions, a variety of points of view, but never bloodshed and combat to reach a solution to these discrepancies.

All of these issues have been settled or marginalized throughout the course of time. There remains, though, the issue of succeeding the Prophet of Allah. This issue has been turned into a polarizing issue by ruling classes, religious classes, and ignorant classes of people. The resultant has become a matter of fanaticism or defamation of the other Muslim who does not agree with a particular point of view. And this has no basis in the Qur'an and no basis in the Sunnah. What follows is a list of accusations and counter-accusations that have been the material of feuding dynasties and religious bigotry throughout the years. These accusations and counter-accusations can be neutralized easily if Muslims agreed to refer these issues to Allah and HIS Prophet and to seek answers coming from sources and references that are reliable, trustworthy, and transparent. These are some of the issues that are turned into cannon fodder – used by some Muslims against other Muslims:

1- Some ignorant Muslims accuse other Muslims saying: they believe that the Quran is incomplete!! It just takes a little investigation to realize that both sides of this unsubstantiated accusation believe in the completeness and finality of the Qur'an.

2- Some less-than-informed Muslims attribute the weight of conviction - a Muslim's iman – to the presence of some unfounded hadiths that are found in all Books of Hadith. Just because these Books of Hadith have within them baseless hadiths should not reflect on the integrity and sincerity of Muslims who, if enlightened and advised, would dismiss such hadiths that are incompatible with the Qur'an and the rest of the well-established Sunnah.

3- Some Muslims who should conduct an inquiry before passing judgment on Muslims accuse other Muslims of placing Imam Ali (radi Allahu anhu wa alahi as salaam) on a pedestal above the Prophet (P) himself. There may have been individuals here and there who reacted to particular oppression by going to extremes and expressing such heresy; but this does not apply to the Shi`is who are the intended target of this malignment.

4- Another point of disagreement among today's Muslims is the definition and the status of "Imam". Without going into details about this matter, suffice it to say that, even though this issue may continue to be one of different definitions, it never should be one that pits one Muslim against another Muslim. And whatever definition is given to the word "Imam" that definition by whomever never violates the meanings of the Qur'an and Sunnah.

5- There is, from time to time, an accusation by some Muslims against other Muslims saying that they have been influenced, brainwashed, or infiltrated by Yahud. This also is one article of defamation that can be put to rest by some research and trans-denominational contact. Anyone who knows anything about the internal thoughts and experiences of all Muslims knows enough to rebut such slur and aspersion.

The above are in no way exhaustive of the misinformation that feeds into the policies of division and discrimination that have been activated from place to place to have the Muslim peoples remain divided and divisible. Our comment on this sad state of affairs is to point out the fact that almost all, if not all, the above mis-characterization of Muslims by other Muslims is attributable to the fact that Muslims no longer think for themselves. And when we no longer think for ourselves other people will begin thinking for us and thinking against us. Everyone here should be aware of the fact that there is an "intellectual world" that is at war with Islamic self-determination. The most advanced stage of this intellectual war is represented in the politics and policies against the Islamic State in Iran. To summon all their intellectual might against Islamic Iran, the Zionist and Imperialist powers of the world are resurrecting and feeding sectarian bigotry. The worst eras in our Islamic history are picked up by the common enemies of all Muslims to highlight what they consider to be an irreconcilable difference between Sunnis and Shi`is. This train of thought begins by tracing the Sunni-Shi'i schism to a "[sectarian] Umar" opposed by a "[sectarian] Ali". This misleading characterization extends into two classes of Sahabah: one of them deadly opposed to the other!! Buying into this scheme of things are governments and regimes that are tied into the Zionist-Imperialist nexus- regimes that thrive in the Islamic East, some of which claim they are the custodians of Islam and the guardians of Iman!!

In our humble calculation of things, we say quite honestly and objectively, that the Islamic led resistance to Zionism in and around the Holy Land is proof positive that sectarianism has no future. By any definition, it is [Shi`i] Hizbullah who are on the front line to liberate [Sunni] Palestine, aided and supported by the Islamic government in Iran. Palestine cannot be considered a "Shi'i" land however way you seek to define it. And Hizbullah cannot be considered to be a "Sunni" movement however way you seek to define it. The more the Islamic non-Sectarian struggle against Zionism increases the more the Zionist and Imperialist enemies of both Sunnis and Shi'is will begin to despair of their policies of "divide and conquer."

I know many people will hesitate to state it, but I will. So far, the leaders and the leadership of the Islamic State in Iran have shown an outstanding amount of understanding, resiliency, and maturity when it comes to the destiny of the Muslims and oppressed peoples of the world. It takes an Islamic State to carry the concerns and anguish of all the Muslims. It takes an Islamic State to extend beyond its geographical boundaries and cultural character to espouse and support the liberation forces in and around the Holy Land of Palestine. This is exactly the state of affairs of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Where else in the world do the Muslims have a free forum to approach the issue of Islamic solidarity and Islamic unity? Where else in the world do the Muslims or oppressed people have a leadership that can bridge the gap between Muslim victims of Zionism and non-Muslim victims of Imperialism? The Islamic leadership in Islamic Iran has had to balance the demands of its internal ebb and flow with the gravity of the external circumstances and conditions in the region- beginning with Lebanon and Palestine and extending all the way to the Indo-Pak subcontinent- through Iraq and Afghanistan... We can see a brighter tomorrow in light of some policies that stand a good chance of success among an Islamic government in Iran, a potential Islamic administration in Turkey, and well tested Islamic liberation force of Hizbullah, an up-and-coming Islamic coalition and liberation force in Palestine. US Imperialism is slowly bleeding and dying through a thousand cuts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Zionist father of all political evils is in the throes of a growing Islamic reality and power in the region. The old political structure in Arabian lands is exactly that: an old, warn-out, dilapidated and expiring political (dis)order. We do not claim to know what will happen tomorrow; we are in no position to outline the details of the coming grand transformation that will usher in an awe-inspiring Islamic ummah as it is meant by the Almighty to be. But what we can see very vividly is the beginning of a formidable Islamic bloc that will deal the death blows to all invaders, occupiers, and plunderers. At the center of all this, undoubtedly, is the non-sectarian Islamic leadership, the struggling Islamic masses, and the freedom loving Islamic and oppressed peoples of the world. All this jargon about "takfir" and "bid'ah", rawafid and nawasib comes from those quarters who are not capable of coming to terms with a universal Islamic awakening that has already begun. These words are not the first words in a new front of enemies against Islamic self-determination, they are the last words of a perishing class of rulers and manipulators who have no thoughts to express, so they turn to foul language and empty threats. We realize that this task of breaking new grounds and remaking the political will of independent Muslims is not an easy task. It is not a task that will be accomplished in a short period of time. It will require determination and sacrifice. It will need adherents and forerunners. But time is on the side of those who pledge their life and their wherewithal to the Almighty and the Arbiter of all. As we write these words there are threats originating from the centers of Zionism and Imperialism against Islamic Iran. This has been going on for quite some time now. And only those who are set apart from Allah can be intimidated by such threats, vain, and empty boasting. Those who call themselves "Sunnis" and lavish all types of innuendo and indictments against Islamic Iran should be ashamed of themselves. A confident "Sunni" will never think twice about coming to the aid of his brother Muslim, especially if this brother Muslim happens to be in an Islamic State that is under constant threat from Zionist and Imperialist powers. It is because these types of "Sunnis" are not sure of their "Sunnism" that they behave in such a manner. Never to overestimate things, these mouthpieces are few and do not represent the grassroots of the Muslims throughout the world. They speak the language of their political masters and their financial paymasters.

Finally, we cannot forget those who have sacrificed their lives and their limbs in the decades and centuries that passed to defend and maintain Islamic self-determination. The All-Merciful shall provide them the bliss that they deserve. We all are looking and anticipating a world of justice, where poverty is out and plenty is in. A world that is finally free of tyranny and oppression. A world that knows no discrimination on the basis of denomination, color, or ethnicity. When the future looks back at the present, the Islamic Republic and its Islamic leadership will be honored with the distinction of being the first to pioneer the path of Islamic brotherhood and freedom and equality for all.

This discussion paper was presented by Imam Mohamed Asi on the occasion of the 23rd International Islamic Unity Conference on 3 March 2010. The Imam is based in Washington D.C. The Imam previously led the daily and Jum'ah prayers inside the Masjid. His speeches were revolutionary and thought provoking, and eventually irritated and threatened the Middle-East Ambassadors who control the Masjid. Finally, the Imam, his family, and other Muslims faithful to the course of Islam were forced out, into the streets. This khutbah originates from the sidewalk across the street from the Islamic Center, currently under seige



There's an ayah in Surah Al Ankabut- the second ayah. OK- we are going to place our minds in this ayah. This ayah says

Do people think/reckon/figure that they are going to be left alone just to say "we are Mu'mineen without being subjected to the tests of the times/the pressures of the powers that be/without being placed in difficult position life? (Surah Al Ankabut verse 2)

This is a question. Do people think this is the case? The question infers that this is not the case. You're not expected by Allah to mumble the words of iman and then carry on without the challenges/difficulties that you will encounter in life. Before we jump to the conclusion, Muslims who commit themselves to Allah there-by becoming Mu'mineen do so with an air of innocence. No one becomes a Muslim with a hot head on the first day- that doesn't occur. When we become Muslims we do it with an open heart and a relaxed mind. There's no fanaticism/intimidation/hostility about Islam. We acquiesce to Allah. But when we do this according to its principles/meanings, we can't expect to be left alone. That is what this ayah is saying. In other words the meaning of the fitna that is located in this ayah is a substantiation/verification of your iman. So what happens if we encounter/meet/interact with those who put on a pictorial of iman? They have the imagery of committed Muslims- whether they are males/females- there's an image to a committed Muslim. So we have many people who have these images, but you should ask "are they under the pressure that comes with the responsibilities of committing your life/efforts to Allah?" Is that the case?

Certainly we have brought these challenging circumstances/details of life to peoples and societies a foretime… (Surah Al Ankabut verse 3)

This is nothing new. You/me/every other individual here-and-there think you are the first one who feels the pressure?! Allah is telling you no-no-no. Don't think that even for a moment.

There has been many/multitudes of others before you who have felt this pressure and more so that Allah may know those who are truthful to this iman/commitment and those who are false/liars. (Surah Al Ankabut verse 3)

Allah knows. Allah is the All Knowing, but it is the portion of our commitment to Allah that has to stand as a testimony in the presence of Allah on the Day of Judgement- that's what counts. We are who we are not by dreaming/intellectualizing. We are who we are by what we do. There's where the verification is. OK- that's the general meaning of this ayah.

We go from this ayah to some of the hadiths of His Prophet. One of these hadith says there will continue to be a segment of my Ummah steadfast on the haqq and it's not going to be harmed/damaged take by those who take issue with/oppose it. In another rendition of this same hadith: there will continue to be a group in my Ummah who are steadfast and who will take a public position pertaining to al haqq until the final hour arrives. Every generation has this element in it. Now this hadith is different from the other so-called hadiths. We don't consider this to be a hadith in which they say that the Prophet says Al Yahud were divided into seventy one-or-so sects/denominations/schisms and An Nasara are divided into seventy two-or-so sects/denominations/schisms and the Muslims/My Ummah, (according to their quote of the hadith) is going to be divided into seventy three sects/denominations/schisms and all of them are going to perish/suffer except for those who adhere to me and my sunnah- however the narrative of that hadith is. Because this hadith is quoted so much, it is timely to see and to say why this hadith may not be a hadith. We know that the Prophet compliments the Qur'an. The Prophet doesn't contradict the Qur'an. If we take the word Ummah which is used in this hadith… The Prophet says my Ummah is going to be divided/spilt into seventy three (whatever you want to call them), branches/denominations, etc. This is a negative description/piece of information about the Ummah of the Prophet. In the Qur'an, when the word Ummah refers to the Ummah of the Prophet (it) is always positive. The word Ummah occurs many times but when it refers to the Ummah of the Prophet it is positive. So we ask ourselves is it possible that Allah to refers to the Ummah of the Prophet in a positive way in the Qur'an and then the Prophet himself refers to his own Ummah in one of these hadiths in a negative way? We don't think so. Allah says concerning this Ummah that we are speaking about

You are the best Ummah to take an interactive position with other peoples of the world… (Surah Aal Imran verse 110)

The best Ummah.

Let there be from amongs you, the followers of Muhammad, an Ummah that calls to al khayr… (Surah Aal Imran verse 104)

That's a positive. We can go to the other ayaat in the Qur'an and see how the Qur'an speaks about the Ummah of Muhammad in a positive way. So how come here, Muhammad himself is speaking in a negative way? This is an indicator that this quote is questionable. Besides, if you take a look at the divisions that are in An Nasara. According to what they call a hadith here, there are going to be seventy two but when you look at their divisions, they're in the hundreds. This is another question mark pertaining to those who say that this is a hadith sahih. Verify that for us. Then, the other question mark about the attribution of this statement to the Prophet is that "is the Prophet pessimistic about his own Ummah?" You sense an air of pessimism that this Ummah of his is even worse then Al Yahud and An Nasara?! The Yahud are better- there's seventy one different segments. The Nasara are better- there are seventy two different segments. Here come the Muslims with seventy three different segments to them. They are worse than even Al Yahud and An Nasara. Does the Prophet speak in such away about his Ummah?! So there's a question mark about this. Back to the original quote from the Prophet in which he says there will remain a taifah of the Prophet's Ummah who will abide/defend/promote al haqq and they are not going to be damaged by those who take issue with them. Many times we find the courage to do this in those who dedicate their lives to Allah. Some of them may be people of knowledge and a scholarly status and others may just be the average person.

Let us quote a hadith Qudsi. It's a little long but it is alright if we learn. It says Allah is saying whoever becomes an enemy of the wali' of mine… Now of course you're going to ask what is meant by wali'? It is one of these words that is very hard to bring into a language that has broken from God a long time ago. A wali' has the meaning of a follower/confidant/premier. If you can put all those words together in one word, you will come out with the meaning of wali'. Allah has His awliya'. There is an ayah in the Qur'an that says

… for sure you don't have to fear for the awliya' of Allah. (Surah Yunus verse 62)

That's one of the meanings. The other one is that

… they themselves have no fear in their lives and they don't grieve. They commit themselves to Allah and within that light of al iman they have the quality of taqwah. (Surah Yunus verse 62)

Taqwah is always being conscious of Allah's power at work in your life here and now. So the Prophet of Allah says in the hadith Qudsi whoever becomes an enemy of a wali' of Mine then I put him on notice/I inform him of a war… You and me are in a creational mode, subjects of Allah- and Allah is saying the best/easiest way we can become close to Him/approach Him is to do His will... What is this fard upon us?

All of it is included in the Qur'an that has been revealed to us. (Surah Al Qassas verse 85)

So the best way to become close to Allah is to become the Qur'an in the flesh/behaviour/motion. … And My subject continues to approach Me and coming close to Me doing voluntary beyond the fard... In the spirit of the Qur'an there's extra things that you can do. … And you keep on doing those extra things until Allah loves you… So it's not only the fard that you are doing. Some of us have the technical mind and say "al fard is as salah." Yes, salah is a fard. Some of us say "Al fard is az zakah. Al fard is fasting." All of these are fard but a fard is one that is done with a spirit and a soul. Let us assume for a moment someone put together a robot and taught that robot all the motions that we go through. So when the robot listens to the adhan he goes to the Masjid and to the salaah. When the robot knows that Ramadhan is coming the robot doesn't eat/is not fuelled/charged anymore and (it) does the same mechanical things that everyone else does. (Do) you think that robot has a place in al jannah/paradise? How come you cannot admit a robot into paradise but you can think of human beings who have become robots who will go to al jannah? Allah says … if I like/adore this Abd I will become the ear by which he hears/listens... Now if we have some minds that are technical and that are just unbelievable types of minds, they take these things literally!? You can't take this literally! God becomes your ear!? That's not what He's saying. God becomes your eye in the physical sense?! No! These are cells and tissues that form our body. What happens is that you begin to hear what Allah wants you to hear. There's a lot of noise in this world. You can tune in to/out of many things. You can observe some things but not other things; but once Allah adores you then your hearing is tuned into what Allah wants you to hear, your eyes are tuned into what Allah wants you to observe, your hand begins to do what Allah wants it to do and your leg/foot become the instruments that walk in the path of Allah. We have some calcified minds that if they take this hadith literally they say "how can this be?" That's one of the problems that we Muslims are suffering from i.e. the literal understanding of some of the ayaat and some of the hadiths such as this hadiths. In other words, if we do what we do, (you can do whatever you do), if Allah dwells in your intention/in the core of your heart/mind, what you are doing i.e. every effort you do in life you do it with the will of Allah so Allah becomes part of you. We're not saying that Allah becomes a physical human being. The hadith is not saying that. No Muslim in his right mind says that. Then, at this time i.e. after you've done the fara'id/nawafil with a spirit/soul, not like a robot, then Allah becomes your senses, (in a sense). Some people say "I make du'a. I ask Allah. I do this and that and I don't hear any answer. I don't see any results." We're sure in your life you've come across some of these types. Well here is a partial answer to that type of question. Are they absorbed/assimilated to Allah? If they are, Allah says here, via His Prophet … at this point/time if My male/female subject asks Me, I will definitely give him... You see- (with) the construct in Arabic there is too much emphasises in this sentence: wa la in… la u'tiyanna … and if he seeks refuge with Me I will offer him shelter and refuge/protect him… And then listen to the last sentence of this hadith Qudsi. Allah says at this point when Allah becomes the embedded will in this human being who is the subject of Allah, (now please brothers and sisters- don't take this literally), I have never hesitated in doing anything I did as much as I hesitated to have my subject expire meaning die. In other words Allah hesitates to take his soul away from his body because he's committed to Allah. Why does He hesitate to do that? Because He says My subject dislikes the moment of death and I dislike disappointing him. If we absorb these meanings, we begin to understand that whatever may happen in life, (what is there that could happen? Think. Whatever it is. The worst case scenario that comes to your mind), it's trivial/meaningless when you are in the presence and company of Allah. Everything. As harsh/hard/tough/painful as it maybe, (whether it is a psychological/physical pain), it is not going to endure forever. It will pass and it will become part of your past and you will remain there in the presence of Allah. That is why He says you live your life in His presence and He did not want to take you away from His presence, so He hesitates at your moment of death because He doesn't want to disappoint you. If we had these meanings in our lives/everyday assignments/jobs/efforts/ endeavours/labour/work if we have this attitude, then we can understand Allah when He says

Oh but the awliya' of Allah don't experience any fear and grief. (Surah Yunus verse 62)

Whatever happens, happens with the grand calculations of the Almighty. Nothing happens just out of nowhere the way it does. On another occasion, when there's another type of pressure i.e. military/warfront pressure, the Munafiqeen in society look at the Muslims and say look they put themselves in trouble. Now look- the whole world's turning against them. We told them don't go that route/don't set yourself up with these enemies. This is what the Munafiqeen/image Muslims/kafirs who are camouflaged with Islam come to Muslims and say. When the Prophet himself was preparing his last military campaign in Tabuk- hundreds of miles away North of Al Madinah- these Munafiqeen came with their attitude. They were telling some people oh it's too hot. You are going to war? This is a long distance. Brothers and sisters- walking from Al Madinah to Syria is a long distance especially if you want to do that under the scorching sun of Arabia. So these Munafiqeen come to the Muslims who have commitment and have Allah with them/by them/for them and say where are you going? It's too hot.

Say to them: but the fire of jahannam has more heat to it. (Surah At Tawbah verse 81)

They come to the Muslims if the Muslims don't score a victory out-and-out and say you see, if you listened to us you wouldn't have suffered those consequences of reversal at the warfront. And the answer to that, (if we are looking at the larger picture), the world doesn't begin and end with one affair. We look at the larger picture (and) we repeat Allah's words

Say to them: nothing is going to happen to us except what Allah decrees to happen to us (Surah At Tawbah verse 51)

So whatever comes our way we take that knowing that our time is limited here. We are on our way to Allah in an eternally sense and we know here in the transient presence in this world we are keeping the company of Allah and when we do that things begin to happen

Shura Council of the Sahaba‏


The description of those who are in a confident relationship with Allah is portrayed in the words of His Prophets when they face the doubts, uncertainties and the obscurities of the people around them. They would say qul inni ala baynaat mir Rabbi as Allah instructed them to say

Of course I am in a clear affair from my Sustainer

This bayyina that is the possession everyone who conforms or complies with Allah, (in our case, today as current unraveling events indicates), barely exists. In one of these areas where this is obvious is in what is becoming the Sunni/Shi'i division of peoples and opinions and therefore a lack of unity and common purpose. This is unknown to those who repeat

Of course I am in a clear affair from my Sustainer

In other words, is the Qur'an and the Prophet, both of them, our trust from Allah or are they less obvious then the petty issues that are dividing the Muslims? To gain this descriptive of

Of course I am in a clear affair from my Sustainer

we are trying, with Allah's help, to clarify these issues that have watered down or marginalized this bayinnah from Allah. We are thankful to Allah to be ahead of our brothers and sisters who are still smothered by inaccurate information that dilutes the brotherhood of the Muslims and their common destiny. We will, with our reliance on Allah, continue to open up some chapters of these critical first generation of Muslims and see whether understanding them increases the distance among us or lends itself to our consolidation. In the time of Uthmaan (radi Allahu anhu), the 3rd successor to Allah's Prophet, there were five individuals who were left out of those 1st generation of Muslims who had become very high profiled Muslims. In the words of some of the personalities of that generation, they said, (which means) the Prophet of Allah expired while he was satisfied with them. These individuals were the ones who were (more or else) contributors in one way or the other to Uthman's responsibility of governing the Muslims. That doesn't mean though the agreed with Uthman. Let us take a quick look at these high profile Islamic personalities who were the shura that was to decide 1st of all the reign of Uthman or to give this responsibility to him and 2nd of all to see where they stood after Uthman himself or the usbah around Uthman began to make decisions. Notice, after we consider these personalities there is no hard feelings.

Abdur Rahmaan ibn Awf (radi Allahu anhu)

The 1st one is Abdur Rahmaan ibn Awf (radi Allahu anhu). This was a person who he himself excluded himself from being one of those several individuals who qualified to lead the Muslims. He was a relative of Allah's Prophet on his mother's side. His name before he became a Muslim was Abd Al-Ka'aba or Abd Al-Amr and the Prophet himself gave him the name Abdur Ar-Rahman. This person was known to be a very prosperous or wealthy man. When he was exiled or became a muhaajir to Al-Madinah, he became a brother of another ansaari (radi Allahu anhu) who was also a very prosperous man in Al-Madinah. The altruism between the muhaajirin and the ansaar was such that the ansaari who had everything would offer the muhaajir who had nothing the choicest of what he had. In this case, Abdur Rahman ibn Awf was offered all that he wanted and he declines. He would say just show me the market. As is the case with some people, wealth and money comes in their way naturally. So, he goes and begins his market activity and he becomes a very wealthy man. This wealth begins to multiply and increase by leaps and bounds. But he was also generous. He would give to the Muslims without question when they were in need. On one occasion, one of his caravans was coming to Al-Madinah and there was a rumble to it as if it were some military division and he gave off that to all who were in need. The Prophet of Allah said to him you are a very rich man, indeed, and I see you crawling meaning I see you moving on your arms and legs into al jannah meaning you are not walking like a normal man into Al-Jannah, you're barely making it into Al-Jannah therefore offer Allah a perfecting loan. These words lived with this man, even though Allah gave him all this wealth. He lived until the time of Uthman and he was almost the arbiter in the decision that was to be made among these six individuals of "who is going to become the next successor to Allah's Prophet." It was with his influence that the Uthman himself became the 3rd successor to Allah's Prophet. At the beginning, the relationship between Abdur Rahmaan ibn Awf and Uthman ibn Affan was what we may call, very normal relationships. But then, after the family circle of Uthman began to move Islamic issues of policy and destiny in the wrong direction Abdur Rahmaan ibn Awf would no longer speak to Uthman or want to meet with Uthman. So- not all is like the information in the public wants to convey- not all these developments were some kind of conspiracy. Even though this person was not known to be a person of austerity- there was no austere aspect to his life. He was not a zaahid.. He wanted to partake of the abundance that was around him. He came to the Prophet, because of a skin condition, and asked permission to wear silk. Allah's Prophet made it an exception and gave him that permission, but then he wanted to extend this and he wanted his family to wear silk and Umar (radi Allahu anhu) rebuked him in more or less words, he said enough is enough- you don't carry this exception to make it the norm. So, Uthman was boycotted more or less by the same person who was instrumental in him becoming the 3rd successor to Allah's Prophet.

Saad ibn Waqqas (radi Allahu anhu)

Another personality that figured pre-dominantly in those days was Saad ibn Waqqas (radi Allahu anhu). We covered a little territory in which there was a dispute between Saad and Uthman and that was as a result of Uthman relieving Saad of his position as governor of Al-Kufa. Once again, Saad was reported to have been, during those critical hours, in making the decision of who is going to lead the Muslims when it came down to two Uthman or Ali (radi Allahu anhuma). It was said that personally, Saad was in favor of Ali becoming the leader of the Muslims, but he didn't make much of this. He kept this personal feelings to himself. We don't know- we say this as a matter of honesty and trust- whether the family circle around Uthman sensed an independent character in Saad and therefore relieved him of his responsibility of being the governor of Al-Kufa. It's just one of those questions that presents itself in the coverage of this territory. When Uthman's family decision makers began to steer the Islamic decision in the wrong direction, Saad took a position of conscience. He said he was neutral to all of this he didn't want to be involved in what was beginning to become obvious- an Islamic government and an Islamic opposition. He felt in himself that he wasn't comfortable with all of this and he didn't want to be involved. He expressed some opinions in opposition to Uthman, but when opposition become more than just expressing yourself, meaning he saw people beginning to carry arms in this opposition, he excluded himself from it. So what do we have right now? Abdur Rahman ibn Awf and Saad, both of them, towards the end of the rule of Uthman as opponents to Uthman in their own way.

Az-Zubair ibn Al-Awwam (radi Allahu anhu)

Then, we have Az-Zubair ibn Al-Awwam (radi Allahu anhu), who is one of these outstanding personalities at that time- one of this shura counsel to decide on the future of the Muslims. To begin with, I think some of us should understand Az-Zubair is the Prophet's cousin. He is the son of Safiyyah; Saffiyah being the sister of Abdillah, the Prophet's father. That's in one direction. In another direction- because some of us look as family issues- with Islamic standards, family issues should not contribute to the worthiness or lack there-of of a committed Muslim, but because some of us have been programmed to factor in these issues it is only our right to look at these factors that are involved. Az-Zubair, the full name is Az-Zubair ibn Al-Awwam Al-Khuwailid. You know, from elementary Islamic history, Khadijah (radi Allahu anha) is the daughter of Khuwailid. So, Az-Zubair's father and Khadijah are a brother and a sister. This is another contributing factor. In other words, let's put it in the way you can understand it, Khadijah was Az-Zubair's paternal aunt- an aunt on his father's side. In another addition to this, Az-Zubair was married to Aisha (radi Allahu anha)'s sister, the daughter of Abi Bakr (radi Allahu anhu)- Asma' (radi Allahu anha), which means that Az-Zubair and the Prophet of Allah were Adis of each other (in Arabic or in farsi) baajnaak or in English) two men married to two sisters. We say "so what?" Our Islamic values don't look at blood relationships. This could be a positive and it can be a negative. Az-Zubair is also one of these people who became extremely rich. If we are talking about understanding the wealth of Abdur Rahman ibn Awf- let's just get a sense of how wealthy he was- when he died, one of these wives (depending on the book that you're reading he died while he had three or four wives) whose inheritance was one-four of one-eighth, which comes out (some what) percentage wise to 3,1 or 3,2% of his wealth went to her which translated into between 80,000 to 100,000 dhirhams or dinaars- it's not made specific. A little, a tad bit over 3% was between 80,000 and 100,000 of the currency of that time. It is said that when Az-Zubair passed away his wealth (here, we, once again run into different numbers) on the lower side it was 35,000,000 and on the higher side it was 52,000,000; the number in between was 45,000,000. Whatever it is, in the context of that time it was much beyond of what we call today's billionaires. How did he make this wealth? He made it in simply what we call today real estate. He asked where is the high value property? He was told in Al-Kufa, Al-Basra, Al-Fastaf, Al-Askandaria, Iraq and in Egypt and he bought and invested. When he died, he had 11 residences in Al-Madinah alone- 11 homes in Al-Madinah. Now, you can understand why there were some Muslims like Abu Dharr (radi Allahu anhu) who was very concerned "why are some people in possession of all of this wealth and other people barely in possession of survival?" So, we come to Az-Zubair himself and his position vis-à-vis Uthman. At the beginning, it was normal, but then, towards the end even though Uthman showed much favoritism to Az-Zubair's son Abdullah (radi Allahu anhu), Az-Zubair turned an opponent of Uthman, so we can't speak about a homogenized wealthy class of Muslims who did not have their differences- they did have their differences. It's not a simple as some people want to cast it a simple issue of polarization of wealth or a conflict between families. There was much more to it then that, even though these were some of the elements of it. This person also turns against Uthman and becomes one of the opponents of Uthman.

Talha ibn Ubaidillah

The other frontline personality in this shura council was Talha ibn Ubaidillah (radi Allahu anhu). Talha belonged to the family structure of Abi Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) called Taim. He also was a very prosperous or rich man. They say when he died he had 30,000,000 dirham or dinaar- we're not very clear on this one is a silver based currency and the other is a gold based currency. By profession, ever since before he became a Muslim, he was a merchant. He had ventures with Uthman- before and after Islam, they would go on commercial journeys to Ass-Shaam. Talha and Uthman became Muslims in the same year. Talha ran into the Prophet of Allah and Abi Bakr when they were on their way from Makkah to Al-Madinah, meaning, during their Hijra from Makkah to Al-Madinah. So, what was Talha's position? Talha, at the beginning, was upset why the decision was made to appoint Uthman to be the leader of the Muslims when he was absent. He was on one of his commercial journeys and he wasn't present in Al-Madinah when the decision was made to appoint Uthman as the ruler of the Muslims. When he came back to Al-Madinah it was a feat accompli. Uthman had already become the successor to the Prophet and the leader to the Muslims. He was very upset about this. In other words, how is a council of people making decisions while I am a member of that counsel and the decision was made and I wasn't consulted. Uthman realizes this was the case and he tried his best to diminish this feeling or this position of Talha. Let us remind ourselves that Talha was one of the persons who (as did all of these people that we are talking about) attended the wars of Allah's Prophet. Talha was distinguished by being one of those rare personalities who fought with Allah's Prophet in the crucial moments of Uhud when many people abandoned him. He was hit by an arrow in his hand while defending Allah's Prophet and one of his fingers was paralyzed. He was injured in all parts of his body in defending Allah's Prophet in Uhud. So, what was his position when the opposition though, when the opposition against Uthman amongst the Muslims increased? Even though- listen to this how sometimes the details that are very critical, we sort of by pass them and generalize- Talha was one of the persons who turned against Uthman with an opposition of arms. In other words, he joined the Muslim armed opposition when Uthman was besieged in his residence. We just mentioned that Az-Zubair was opposed to Uthman. Az-Zubair's son Abdullah (radi Allahu anhu) was in charge of security of Uthman's residence. Talha was one of the people who was in the crowd of opposition that came to unseat Uthman. When Uthman was killed and Ali showed discomfort with the killing of Uthman, Talha was one of the persons who was surprised- how could Ali feel uneasy or disturbed by the killing of Uthman. This could not make sense to him. We later know that even though Talha gave his bai'ah after Uthman to Ali, along with Az-Zubair, they were in almost a quick fashion to renege on that bai'ah and Marwan ibn Hakam was a person who was destined to kill Talha in the battle of Al-Jamal because he said this is for that- you, Talha, was instrumental in this revolt against Uthman and now I am getting equal with you.

Imam Ali (as)

The last outstanding personality in this counsel of shura was Ali, who, (save us from much of the details of what has become the tit for tat between Sunnis and Shi'is in their versions of history) we'll spare ourselves this and we will take what is known by every Muslim whatever their background is. Ali became a Muslim in the household of the Prophet of Allah when he was either 9 or 11 years old. He was the Prophet's cousin. Abu Talib took care of the Prophet when the Prophet needed help and the Prophet took care of Ali when Abu Talib's family needed help. Ali was married to the Prophet's daughter (radi Allahu anha). Ali was the trustee of the possessions that were in the Prophet's control when he was in Makkah the day or the night that he had to leave from Al-Makkah to Al-Madinah. The Prophet said to Ali, this was when the Prophet was going on a military mission to Tabuk and deputized Ali over Al-Madinah when he wanted to participate in this military mission of the Prophet. Ali was the one who would carry the banner of the Muslims in every military encounter. He was the one who gave his bai'ah with sincerity and honesty to Abi Bakr and Umar and he did not boycott them. He did not express any hostility towards them. When they needed advice he would give them advice. He did not say "I am going to isolate myself from political life because the affairs of the Ummah are going in the wrong direction"- none of that is reported in history, if we want to be fair to what we are reading. But, when things began to go wrong at the time of Uthman, even though, on a personal level, he was not an enemy of Uthman, he disagreed with the decisions that were being made out of the office of Uthman. When the opposition turned violent against Uthman Ali's sons were the ones who were entering and leaving the residence of Uthman. That being said, obviously Ali did not agree with many of the things that were done in the name of Uthman, either by his relatives or by him, himself, or by some ambiguous shouldering of the responsibility. Whatever the case was, this was the shura council that made the critical decisions in those times and days and we find out, at the end, that barely anyone- rather none of them none of them from this shura counsel- were satisfied with at least the latter second half of the rule of Uthman ibn Affan. Now, we ask you, if this is the information that is affordable or available to all Muslims, then why is everyone worked up with each other saying "I am a Sunni" or "I am a Shi'i?" Where did this come from? It wasn't there. We're looking at this information 1st hand, without any interference and we don't find this type of tension among these sincere Muslims who sincerely disagreed amongst themselves. So, does recalling these events generate bad feelings? NO. Recalling these events lends itself to experience. We learn from this. If we cannot learn from this, maybe being six feet under is more honorable than shouldering the responsibilities of life. Let us ask ourselves also- we notice that the Muslims did not have, in this time period, a vice-president as it were, meaning the khalifah or the imam or the Ameer Al-mu'muneen, whatever you want to call the chief executive of the Muslims. The Muslims did not have a deputy. Are we missing something, can we not ask ourselves why was that not the case? Were they less then able to find someone who could fill in for the Muslim ruler if something happens to him? Are we allowed have someone in that position or not? Can we learn from this history, absorb its lessons or are we blinded by fanatical emotionalism?