Saturday, July 19, 2014

Umar bin Abdul Aziz and Muawiyah bin Yazid Cursed by the 12er Shia

It turns out that the Dozener Shia sect's curse against the Bani Ummayah includes Umar bin Abdul Aziz (ra) and Muawiyah bin Yazid.

The cursing which is found in Ziyarat Ashura also includes Yazid\'s son. Considering that he (Muawiyah bin Yazid) was a good man, how can we consider Ziyarat Ashura as authentic and reliable?

Concise answer

All the Banu Umayyah [lit. Sons of Umayyah] including Yazid's son have been cursed in Ziyarat Ashura. However, according to some historians Yazid's son and a few other people from the same clan rendered some good humanitarian services to the people of their time. Apparently, the cursing which is found in Ziyarat Ashura is opposed to the good deeds they have done. This begs the question: Why are they cursed? In order to make this point clear and to demonstrate that there is no contradiction between the two, we must say: The name 'Banu Umayyah' refers to and includes all those people who were intellectually and practically coordinated with Banu Umayyah to oppose the Ahlul-Bayt of the Holy Prophet (s). That is to say, all those who were opposed to the imamate (leadership) of the Imams (a.s.) and were directly or indirectly involved in committing crimes against them or were just happy with the atrocities unleashed upon the Imams are included. This point is clearly inferred from the statements preceding and following the curse. That is because the context of Ziyarat Ashura indicates that those cursed are people who usurped the caliphate and reclined on its throne through illegitimate ways. They were the ones who made every effort to turn off the light of Allah, so they left no stone unturned to express their enmity to the family of the Holy Prophet (s). It also includes those individuals who backed these people or consented to their crimes. Thus, the good and noble people from Bunu Umayyah are categorically excluded. That is, the curse in Ziyarat Ashura does not include the good doers from Banu Umayyah in the first place.

Detailed Answer
The above question has two aspects that need to be dealt with: One, investigation into the life of Yazid's son in terms of his beliefs and conducts, another, understanding the meaning of "cursing all Banu Umayyah" in Ziyarat Ashura.
When it comes to Yazid's son, we must say that: There is no doubt that Muawiyah bin Yazid's abdication from the throne was a praiseworthy action on his part. Indeed, he understood very rightly that the throne had been usurped and that he was not the right person to recline on it. However, it does not mean that we must be certain that Muawiyah bin Yazid repented with all the conditions of repentance (including compensation of all the committed injustice and oppressions) and was bestowed with divine blessing. His abdication from power also does not mean that he was not included in the curse of Allah. There is no doubt that usurping the caliphate, for a short time though, is a great sin and if this sin has to be forgiven, it should bear certain conditions. For example, Imam Sajjad (a.s.) said about Umar bin Abdul Aziz that the Imam said to Abdullah bin 'Ata: "He (Umar bin Abdul Aziz) will die and people on earth will cry on his death while the dwellers of the heavens shall curse him."[1] That is because he occupied a position to which he had no right and which he did not deserve, though he had done a lot of good and positive things. Indeed, we cannot say for sure that Muawiyah bin Yazid or Umar bin Abdul Aziz is not included in the divine grace.[2] In any case, God alone knows about their fate but it is undeniable that some people from the Banu Umayyah tribe were among the sincere and devout Shiites like Khalid bin Aas, Abul Aas bin Rabi', Sa'd al-Khair and a few others. Having said that, we accept that there are people in Banu Umayyah who do not deserve to be cursed by Allah.  Now, we shall take up the discussion with the second aspect of the question i.e. the meaning of 'Banu Umayyah' in Ziyarat Ashura.
[1] Saffar, Muhammad Hasan, Basaer al-Darajat, pg. 170, Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi Library, Qom, 2nd edition, 1404 A.H.

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